CMMI Terminology (CMMI Terms) – Alphabetical Order

Acceptance criteria
Previously established decisive factors that must be available in a deliverable to be accepted by a user, customer, or other authorized body are known as Acceptance criteria. (Go through “deliverable” also)
Acceptance testing
Testing conducted in a formal manner to facilitate a user, customer, or other authorized body to decide whether to say yes for acceptance of a deliverable or not. (Go through “unit testing” also)
Achievement profile
A directory of process areas and their analogous achievement in progress of process within a specific process area called capability levels which represents the improvement of organization for each process area while enhancing through the capability levels. (Go through “capability level profile,” “target profile,” and “target staging also)
The stakeholder procuring or acquiring a service or product from a provider or contractor (Go through “stakeholder” also)
The procedure of procuring or acquiring services or products through a formal supplier agreement (Go through “supplier agreement” also)
Acquisition strategy
The particular method for acquiring services and products which is on the basis of deliberation of supply sources, acquisition procedure, types of requirements specification, types of agreement, and risks allied in acquisition.
A clearly noticeable component of model which contains facts and data of concerned area for specific users; In CMMI model, all additions are put up with the identical name which can be selectively chosen as a whole for use. For example in CMMI model for Services the process area -Service System Development (SSD) is an addition component.
Agile software development
A set of methodologies of software development which are on the basis of identical principles, Agile process usually endorse a project management process which supports regular evaluation and modification, a headship viewpoint which promotes joint effort, self-organization and responsibility, a group of best practices in engineering that permit for fast release of high-class software, and an methodology for business which lines up development practices with customer requirements and company objectives.
Allocated requirement
Requirement which consequences from imposing all high level requirements or a part of it on a low level design component or architectural constituent; Usually requirements are assigned to other physical or logical element counting individuals, consumables, increments in delivery, or the structural design as a group, depending on what best facilitates the service or product to attain the requirements.
Alternative evaluation
A methodical assessment of optional means to complete an assignment that evaluates the cost, effort, performance, and impact on environment of every alternative under concern, perfectly, the scope of assessment includes optional products, processes, technology, work products, and disposal techniques.
A formal evaluation of procedures by a skilled group of professionals on the basis of a reference model for appraisal to determine weaknesses and strengths
Appraisal findings
The results and outcomes of the appraisal which recognize the principal issues, difficulties, or opportunities to improve the process for the organization in the appraisal scope; Appraisal findings are conclusions obtained from confirmed unbiased and objective proof.
Appraisal participants
Members who participates in an appraisal to provide information during the appraisal and belongs to the organizational unit
Appraisal rating
An appraisal team allots the significance to a process area or CMMI objective, the process area’s capability level, or an organizational unit’s maturity level.
Appraisal reference model
The CMMI model used by an appraisal team to draw a parallel application of activities in the process
Appraisal scope
The outlining of the limitations of an appraisal surrounding the organizational confines and CMMI model restrictions within which the formal examination and evaluation is carried out.
The group of patterns required to argue regarding a product or service. These patterns are consisting of building blocks, associations among them, and characteristics of both. The service framework containing the patterns which are frequently used in the service system
An assessment of a work product or a set of work products aligned with particular decisive factors from requirements. (Go through “objectively evaluate” also) These terms are used in various ways in CMMI, counting process compliance audits, internal audits and configuration audits.
A group of work products which is officially evaluated and reviewed and approved on, afterward further development is done on the basis of that and it can be altered only through change control process. (Go through “configuration baseline” and “product baseline” also)
Base measure
Measure described in terms of a characteristic and the process for enumerating and quantifying it. (Go through “derived measure” also) A base measure is practically self-governing and doesn’t depend on other measures.
Bidirectional traceability
A relationship among two or more logical units that is recognizable and identifiable in both directions (to and from a logical unit). (Go through “requirements traceability” and “traceability” also)
Capability level
Accomplishment of process improvement in a particular process area (Go through “generic goal,” “specific goal,” “maturity level,” and “process area.”) A capability level is described by suitable specific goals and generic goals for a process area.
Capability level profile
A directory of process areas and their analogous capability levels (Go through “achievement profile,” “target profile,” and “target staging.” also) A capability level profile is an achievement profile when it shows the organization’s improvement in terms of process area while progressing on the basis of capability levels. It is a target profile when it shows a goal for process improvement.
Capability maturity model
The model which holds the necessary basic units of efficient procedures for one or more regions of attention and explains a progressive development route from immature procedures to controlled, mature procedures with enhances quality and efficiency.
Capable Process
A procedure which assures its pre-defined quality of product, service and process performance goals (Go through “stable process” and “standard process” also)
Change Management
To effectuate a change or a projected change to a service or product a well thought-out method is used. (Go through “configuration management” also)
Change Request
A formal appeal for a change in some work product or process
Check in & Check out
Files are checked in or out in a Version Control System. Check out means that who has checked the file out can make changes to it then check those changes in. At that time some VCS lock the file to avoid any other developers making changes to it. An optional method is to permit multiple persons to check a file out and when changes are several then flag that on the file two or more developers are worked and the differences are solved prior to the file and successfully checked back in.
A list of process steps or functions that directs to verify the features of the application; the major principle of Checklist anything must not be missed which is needed to complete the task.
CMMI Framework
The fundamental arrangement which systematizes components of CMMI, as well as units of present CMMI models in addition to methods and rules for producing models, methods for appraisal (counting related artifacts), and material for trainings. (Go through “CMMI model” and “CMMI Product Suite.” also) This framework makes sure novel regions of concern to be adjoined to CMMI to incorporate with the currently available.
CMMI model component
One of the principal fundamental units which create a CMMI model; Certain principal units of a CMMI model comprise specific practices, generic practices, specific goals, generic goals, process areas, capability levels, and maturity levels etc.
CMMI Product Suite
The whole group of products built on all over the CMMI model. (Go through “CMMI Framework” and “CMMI model” also) These products contain the framework, models, methods for appraisal, materials for appraisal and training.
COCOMO stands for Constructive Cost Model” which is algorithmic based software cost estimation model developed by Barry W. Boehm. A fundamental regression formula with parameters which are drawn from historical project data and current project characteristics is used in the model. It permits to estimate the cost, effort, and schedule related with a software development project. 3 types are 1) Basic COCOMO – is a constant, single valued model which calculates software development effort and cost as a task of program & size is expressed in estimated lines of code 2) Intermediate COCOMO – Software development work as utility of program size and a group of “cost drivers” which comprise evaluation of product, hardware, staff and project characteristics 3) Detailed COCOMO – includes all attributes of the intermediate version with an evaluation of impact of the cost driver in every phase in SDLC
Commercial off-the-shelf
Things which are bought and acquired from a supplier
Common cause of variation
The variation or difference of a procedure that subsists due to usual and predicted connections among constituents of a process (Go through “special cause of variation.” also)
Configuration audit
An audit is carried out to confirm that a configuration item (CI) or a collection of configuration items (CIs) which structure a baseline corresponds to a pre-specified requirement or standard. (Go through “audit” and “configuration item.” also)
Configuration baseline
The configuration facts and data are officially chosen at a particular time during a product component’s or product’s life. (Go through “product lifecycle” also) Configuration baselines in addition with accepted changes from those baselines comprise the present configuration information.
Configuration control
A basic unit of configuration management comprising of the assessment, synchronization, approval or disapproval, and application of changes to the CIs (Configuration Items) after formal institution of their configuration identification (Go through “configuration identification,” “configuration item,” and “configuration management” also)
Configuration Control board
A team of professionals accountable for assessing and approving or disapproving projected changes to CIs and for making sure completion of accepted changes (Go through “configuration item” also) Configuration control boards can also named as ?change control boards.
Configuration Controller
Configuration controller manages all the versions of the project and project elements. CC has detailed tracking records of each and every version of CIs and what are the differences between the versions and who did the modifications. CC is responsible for Configuration Audits.
Configuration Identification
A basic unit of configuration management comprising of choosing the configuration items for a product, allocating a unique identifiers to them, and keeping track of their physical and functional attributes in technical records. (Go through “configuration item,” “configuration management,” and “product” also)
Configuration Item
The assembly of work products which is selected for configuration management and considered as a solitary entity in the configuration management procedure (Go through “configuration management” also)
Configuration Management
The guidelines implementing managerial and technological way and observation for recognizing and recording the physical and functional attributes of a configuration item, control changes to the attributes, recording and reporting change in application status, and validate conformity with pre-specified requirements. (Go through “configuration audit,” “configuration control,” “configuration identification,” and “configuration status accounting” also)
Configuration status accounting
A basic unit of configuration management comprising of the documenting and giving an account of data and facts required to manage a configuration efficiently. (Go through “configuration identification” and “configuration management” also) This knowledge comprises a directory of the accepted configuration, the condition of projected changes to the configuration, and the application status level of accepted changes.
A gathering of elements of CMMI which are bring into play to create models, training materials, and documents associated with appraisal for a region of concern (e.g., acquisition, development, services).
Contingency Plan
Contingency plan is also said as plan B, Which is totally an alternative path. Contingency plans represent what to do if unexpected incidents take place.
Continuous representation
An architectural representation of CMMI where capability levels gives a recommended sequence to attempt process improvement in each process area (Go through “capability level,” “process area,” and “staged representation” also)
Core Process Area
Every CMMI model has 16 core process areas. These process areas comprise practices which include ideas in project management, process management, infrastructure, and support.
Contractual requirements
The consequence of the inspection and modification of customer requirements into a group of requirements appropriate to be comprised in one or more solicitation packages, or supplier agreements (Go through “acquirer,” “customer requirement,” “supplier agreement,” and “solicitation package.” also) Contractual requirements contain both technical and nontechnical requirements essential for the procurement of a service or product.
Corrective action
Performances or actions utilized to antidote circumstances or eliminate an error.
Corrective Maintenance
Immediate amendments in a software application carried out subsequent to release to correct found and open faults and issues.
The group accountable to accept the product or services and authority to authorize payment; the customer is outsider to the project or work group but not compulsorily external to the association. Customers are a part of an universal set of stakeholders.
Customer requirement
The consequence of extracting, merging, and solving incongruity among the requirements, prospects, limitations, and interfaces of the product’s relevant stakeholders in a way that is acceptable to the customer. (Go through “customer” also)
Information which is documented and recorded; Documented information can comprise technical facts & data, documents of computer software, information related to finance, management information, demonstration of particulars, numbers, or a piece of information of any kind that can be conveyed, collected, and processed.
Data Architecture
The data Architecture endows with a framework for the information requirements of a business or business function. The particular building blocks of the architecture are the data objects which are brought into play in the business. A data object holds a group of characteristics which describe some feature, quality, attribute etc. of the data which are being explained.
Data Flow Diagram
A pictorial and graphical depiction of the “flow” of data by means of an information system. DFDs can be applied for the image of processing of data.
Data Management
The well-ordered and strictly controlled procedures and structures which plan for, obtain, and give supervisory for technical and business data, constant with data requirements, all the way through lifecycle.
Defect Density
Total Number of defects per unit of size of product; for an example: the number of problem reports per hundred function points.
Defect Removal Efficiency
DRE is a degree to detect and measure defects prior to release. It is computed as percentage of the defects recognized and resolved with regard to the total defects present in the whole project. So, DRE is the percentage of defects removed by reviews, assessment, tests etc.
Defect Tracking
Defect tracking is a method to find defects in a project (by reviews, testing, or feedback from customers), and building new versions of the project which fix the defects. Defect tracking is essential in software engineering because complicated software systems normally have many defects managing, analyzing and prioritizing the defects is a complicated task defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help persons to manage them.
Defined process
A controlled and supervised procedure that is customized from the organization’s collection of standard procedures in accordance with the organization’s tailoring/ customization guidelines; has a sustained procedure explanation; and adds procedure associated experiences to the organizational process assets Library. (Go through “managed process” also)
Definition of required functionality and quality attributes
A classification of essential functionality and quality features acquired through “breaking apart,” organizing, commenting on, organizing the requirements (functional and non-functional) to assist further modification and analysis on the requirements in addition to resolution investigation, explanation, and assessment. (Go through “architecture,” “functional architecture,” and “quality attribute” also)
A Configuration item is delivered to an acquirer or other chosen beneficiary as pre-specified in an agreement. (Go through “acquirer” also) This item can be a document, hardware item, software code, service, or any type of work product.
Delivery environment
The comprehensive group of conditions and situations beneath which delivery of services is done according to service agreements (Go through “service” and “service agreement” also) The delivery environment surrounds the whole things which have a major consequence on delivery of service, counting but not restricted to operation of service system, natural process, and the deeds of all groups, whether or not they aim to have such an effect
Derived measure
Measure which is described as a task of two or more values of base measures or derived from it (Go through “base measure” also)
Derived requirements
Requirements which are not clearly declared in customer requirements but are contingent from related requirements or from requirements desired to state a product or product component.
Design review
A formal, documented, complete, and organized evaluation of a design to verify that the design fulfills the relevant requirements, to detect problems, and to recommend solutions
To construct a product or service system by planned effort. In some situations, development can comprise the maintenance of the developed product or service.
Development Environment
In software development, the development environment is the collection of procedures, programming tools and technology utilized to develop the software product. The expression at times also means the “physical environment”.
A group of information, in spite of the means on which it is documented, that usually has durability and can be understood by machines or humans. Documents comprise both documented data and electronic data.
Earn Value Management
Earned Value Management (EVM) is a methodical tactic for the integration and measurement of cost, schedule, and technical (scope) activities in a project or assignment. It provides both the client and service providers the capability to evaluate explained information of schedule, important program and technical milestones, and cost. Since EVM has the capability to unite dimensions of Project scope, schedule and cost in an integrated system, Earned Value Management is capable to grant exact estimates of problems of project performance, which is an essential role for project management.
An application of force or energy, either mental or physical, in carrying out an action and seeking at an objective; comparatively exhausting exertion; struggle guided to the completion of an objective; as, an effort.
Effort Variance
Effort Variance is the difference between efforts planned and the actual effort exhausted on the tasks.
End user
A group which finally makes use of a deliverables or which entertains the advantages of a delivered service (Go through “customer” also)
The complete composition of a company (Go through “organization” also) A company can comprise of various associations in various locations with different customers.
Entity Relationship Diagram
An entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a particular pictorial which demonstrates the associations between entities in a database. ER diagrams frequently make use of different shapes to denote three different types of information. Boxes are normally utilized to signify entities. Diamonds are usually utilized to signify relationships and ovals are utilized to signify characteristics.
Entry criteria
Criteria of being that must be available previous to begin the effort on project successfully.
Establish and maintain
Generate record in document, apply, and revise work products essential to make sure that they stay helpful. The saying ‘establish and maintain’ act as a particular responsibility in conveying a theory in CMMI: work products which have an important role in project, work group, and organization, the performance should be given notice to make sure that they are helpful in that responsibility.
Rough calculation, forecast, or projection of a quantity on the basis of experience and/or information present at the time, with the acknowledgment that other applicable facts are uncertain or unidentified. An approximate is nearly the same as a knowledgeable guess, and the low-cost and least precise kind of form.
Example work product
An instructive and informative component of model which provides sample outputs from a particular specific practice.
Exit criteria
Conditions of being that must be available previous to successfully end of an effort.
Expected CMMI components
Components of CMMI which explain the actions which are important in accomplishing a required CMMI component Users of Model can put into practice the expected components clearly or apply equivalent practices to these components. Specific and generic practices are expected components of model.
Feasibility Study
A study, analysis and assessment of a projected project to decide if it is technically practicable, realistic in the cost which is estimated, and will be beneficial and profitable. Feasibility studies are practically at all times carried out where huge amounts are at venture. Sometimes it is also called “feasibility analysis”.
Final Acceptance Testing
An operational check carried out on an application prior to put it in the real environment and before delivery to the customer. The acceptance testing procedure is intended to imitate the expected real-environment use of the product to make sure that consumer get a completely functional item and come across their requirements.
Fish Bone diagram
A problem resolving means which is used to visually represent the causes in the diagram and consequences of a trouble. Fishbone Diagramalso known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams and represent the reasons of a specific occasion. General uses of the Ishikawa diagram are designing of product and defect averting quality, to recognize probable features producing the whole effect. Every cause for defect is a source of variation. Causes are normally collected into chief categories to recognize these sources of variation. Each cause for defect is a source of variation. Causes are normally categorized into main categories to recognize the sources of variation. The categories usually comprise

  • People
  • Methods
  • Machines
  • Materials
  • Measurements
  • Environment

Form a Form consists of one or more areas which permit the user to put in the information (like text area, drop-down menus, buttons, check-boxes, etc.).

Formal Evaluation Process
An organized method to evaluate alternative solutions aligned with recognized criteria to establish a suggested solution to deal with an issue.
Functional Analysis
Evaluation of a definite utility to recognize all the sub utilities important to achieve that utility; recognition of interfaces (internal and external) and functional associations and describe these interfaces and associations in a functional structural design; and splitting up of upper level requirements and tasks of these requirements to lower level sub utilities. (Go through “functional architecture” also)
Functional Architecture
The arrangement of functions according to hierarchy, their internal and external functional interfaces and external physical interfaces, their respective requirements, and their design restraints
Function Point
Function points are a standard or norm unit of computing which shows the functional size of a software product. The size of an application is measured in the unit of Function Points.
Gantt chart
Gantt Charts are helpful means for examining and planning complicated projects. Following are the functions carried out by Gantt Charts

  • Helps to redesign the assignments which require to be finished
  • Gives a base for scheduling when these tasks are conducted
  • Allows to plan the task allocation to resources & to complete the project
  • Helps to resolve the unfavorable route for a project when it is to be completed by a specific date.
Generic goal
A required component of the model that explains attributes which must be available to institutionalize procedures which implement a process area. (Go through “institutionalization” also)
Generic practice
An expected component of the model which is believed significant in accomplishing the related generic goal; The generic practices related to a generic goal explain the actions which are expected to conclude in accomplishment of the generic goal and add to the institutionalization of the processes related with a process area.
Generic practice elaboration
An informative component of model which comes into view following a generic practice to give assistance on the implementation of generic practice individually to a process area (This component of model is not available in all models of CMMI.)
Hardware engineering
The implementation of a methodical, closely controlled, experimental and quantifiable tactic to alter a requirements’ set that show the group of needs of stakeholder, prospects, and restraints, using documented skills and design technology, apply, and sustain a physical product (Go through “software engineering” and “systems engineering” also) In CMMI, hardware engineering shows all technological areas (e.g., electrical, mechanical) that change ideas and requirements into physical products.
Higher level management
The individual or individuals who give the strategy and overall direction for the process but do not give the straight daily monitoring and controlling of the procedure (Go through “senior manager” also) Such individuals fit to a in the management in the organization above the immediate level responsible for the procedure and can be (but not essentially) senior managers.
Impact Analysis
Analysis of the pros and cons of following a strategy of the probable outcome, and description of change can occur. The evaluation of change to development documentation, test documentation and project components, to apply a required change to specific requirements.
Incomplete process
A procedure which is not executed or partly executed; In that case one or more specific goals of the process area are not implemented; An incomplete process is at capability level 0 (Zero).
Informative CMMI components
Components of CMMI which helps out users of model to comprehend the expected and required components of a CMMI model; these components are comprised of instances, descriptions, or useful facts and data.
The embedded method of carrying out business which an organization chases regularly as section of its corporate culture
Interface control
In configuration management, the procedure of recognizing all functional and substantial attributes significant to interface between two or more configuration items given by one or more organizations and making sure that projected alterations to these attributes are examined and accepted before execution. (Go through “configuration item” and “configuration management” also.)
Lifecycle model
A splitting of the lifecycle of a product, service, project, work group, or set of activities into segments called phases.
Managed Process
An implemented procedure which is planned and executed compliant with guiding principle; makes use of proficient resources having sufficient means to create restricted results; entails relevant stakeholders; is observed, controlled, and reviewed with analysis; and is assessed for compliance to the procedure explanation (Go through “performed process” also.)
An individual who gives technical and managerial guidance and manage those who carry out activities in the scope of manager’s responsibility; This word has a unique significance in the CMMI Product Suite as well its usual accepted meaning in English. The conventional tasks of a manager comprise planning, organizing, guiding and controlling tasks in the scope of the responsibility.
Maturity Level
Extent of improvement in procedures according to a previously defined group of process areas in which all objectives in the group are achieved (Go through “capability level” and “process area” also)
Measure (Noun)
A value is allotted to a variable as an outcome of measurement. (go through “base measure,” “derived measure,” and “measurement” also)
A sequence of functions in a process to establish the value of a measure (Go through “measure” also)
Measurement Result
A value concluded by executing activities of process for measurement. (Go through “measurement” also)
Memorandum of agreement
A compulsory documented record for understanding the agreement between two or more parties. A memorandum of agreement can also named as-memorandum of understanding.?
Software metric is a degree of some attributes of a piece of software or its specifications. Because quantitative measurements are important in all disciplines, there is a constant effort by software professionals to take alike methods for software development. The aim is to attain objective and quantifiable measurements, which may have several precious applications in schedule and budget planning, cost estimation, quality assurance testing, software debugging and software performance optimization assignments.
Mitigation Plan
Risk mitigation plan is the procedure of creating options and actions to increase opportunities and reduce hazards to project objectives. Risk mitigation implementation is the procedures of performing risk mitigation actions.
Monte Carlo Simulation
Monte Carlo simulation also known as probability simulation is a technique applied to understand the risk impact and ambiguity in financial, project management, cost, and other prediction models. In it values are generated from a known distribution for the intent of experimentation. It is achieved by creating consistent random variables and by means of them in a contrary dependability equation to create failure times it would correspond to the required input distribution.
Natural bounds
The intrinsic series of variance in a procedure, as established through measures of process performance; Natural bounds are also explained as ?voice of the process.? Techniques for example control charts, confidence intervals, and prediction intervals are applied to establish that the variance is because of common reasons or is because of unusual cause which is to be recognized and removed. (Go through “measure”? and “process performance” also.)
Non developmental item
An item which is created before its present use in an acquisition or development procedure; this type of items may need minor alterations to compliant with the requirements of its present projected use.
Nontechnical requirements
Requirements influencing service and product possession or development which are not attributes of the service or product. Instances comprise numerous services or products which are to be released; data rules for delivery of COTS and non developmental items, dates of delivery, and milestones with exit conditions. Further nontechnical requirements comprise work limitations related to training, site necessities, and implementation schedules.
Objectively evaluate
To evaluate process activities and work products according to decisive factors which reduce prejudice and unfairness by the reviewer. (Go through “audit” also)
Operational concept
A common explanation of the method in which a unit is applied or carries out; an operational concept is also named as concept of operations.?
Operational scenario
A depiction of a visualized system of activities which comprises the interface of the service or product to its users and environment, in addition to communication among its service or product components Operational scenarios are applied to examine the design and requirements of the system and to review and test the system.
A managerial and administrative system in which individuals cooperatively administer and supervise one or more work groups or projects as one, assign a senior manager, and act in the same guiding principle.
Organizational maturity
The degree up to which an association has clearly and constantly implemented procedures which are documented, managed, measured, controlled, and persistently improved; Organizational maturity can be measured through appraisals.
Organizational policy
Guidelines characteristically created by senior management which is accepted by an organization to affect and establish conclusions.
Organizational process assets
Objects or documents which are associated to explain, deploy, and improve procedures. Examples of these objects comprise guidelines, measurement descriptions, process descriptions, support tools for process deployment. (Go through “process asset library” also)
Organization’s business objectives
Objectives developed by Senior-management intended to make sure an organization’s sustained subsistence and improve its productivity, share, and other features impacting the success of the organization. (Go through “quality and process performance objectives” and “quantitative objective” also)
Organization’s measurement repository
A library store brought into play for collecting and making results of measurement present on procedures and work products, specifically as they associate to the set of standard procedures of the organization. This repository encloses or recommends authentic results of measurement and linked facts and data required to understand and analyze measurement results.
Organization’s process asset library
A collection of information and knowledge utilized to gather and manage process assets to make accessible which are helpful to those who define, implement, and manage processes in the organization. This library comprises process assets which consist of documentation related to processes for instance guiding principle, procedures, checklists, lessons learnt, templates, standards, procedures, plans, and materials for training.
Organization’s set of standard processes
A collected works of processes definitions which direct activities in an organization. These descriptions of process take in the elements of fundamental process and their associations with each other for example ordering and interfaces which should be included into the processes which are deployed in projects, work groups, and work in the organization. A standard process facilitates constant development and maintenance doings in the organization and is necessary for lasting durability and enhancement. (Go through “defined process”? and “process element” also)
Pareto Analysis
A statistical technique for making decisions which is applied for selection of a limited number of assignments which produce important whole effect. The Pareto Principle states that only a “few critical” factors are accountable for creating the majority of the problems. This principle is applied for improvement in quality to the degree that most of problems (80%) are developed by a few root causes (20%).
PDCA Cycle
PDCA stands for Plan–Do–Check–Act is a repetitive four-phase management technique applied in business for the project control and constant improvement in procedures and work products. It is also called as the Deming cycle/circle/wheel.
Peer review
The work products review conducted by peers all through the development cycle of work products to find defects or bugs for elimination. (Go through “work product” also) This term “peers review”? is applied in the CMMI Product Suite in place of the expression “work product inspection”.?
Performance parameters
The effectiveness measures and other key measures applied to direct and control progressive and evolving development.
Performed process
A procedure which achieves the required work to create work products; the specific goals of the process area are complied with model.
Performance Predictive Model
A explanation of the associations among characteristics of a procedure and its work products which are created from previous process performance data and standardized by means of collected process and product metrics from the project and these are used to predict performance to be accomplished through adhering to a process.
Planned process
A procedure which is recorded in document by both an explanation and a plan .The explanation and plan are synchronized and the plan comprises requirements, standards, goals, resources, and task allocation.
A group of interconnected events, which convert inputs into outputs, to accomplish a provided aim (Go through “process area,” “sub process “and “process element” also)
Process action plan
The planned actions, typically results from formal appraisals which documents “how improvements and enhancement aiming at the weaknesses” exposed by an assessment will be put into practice.
Process action team
A group of professionals who has the accountability to create and execute activities related to process improvement for an organization which is recorded in a process action plan.
Process and technology improvements
Developmental and inventive enhancements to procedures or to procedure, product, or service expertise
Process Area
A bunch of interrelated activities in a region, when these are put into practice together, complies with a suite of objectives seemed vital for improvement in the region.
Process Asset
Something the organization thinks that it is helpful in achieving the aims of a process area. (Go through “organizational process assets” also)
Process Asset Library
A pool of process asset belongings which can be used by a project, work group or organization (Go through “organization’s process asset library” also)
Process Attribute
A quantifiable attribute of process capability relevant for at all process.
Process Capability
The collection of estimated results which can be attained by means of adhering to a process
Process Definition
The deed of explaining and depicting a process; the result this deed is a process definition. (Go through “process description” also)
Process Description
A recorded documentation of a group of practices executed to attain a provided goal of the process. A process description gives a functional explanation of the key elements of a procedure.
Process Element
The basic component of a procedure; A procedure is described in expression of sub processes or process components. A sub process is also a process element when there is no scope of further splitting. (Go through “process”? and “sub process” also.)
Process Group
A group of professionals who assist the description, maintenance, and enhancement of procedures utilized by the organization
Process Improvement
A series of practices intended to enhance and improve the performance of the process and maturity level of the organization’s processes, and the outcome of these types of practices.
Process Improvement Objectives
A group of goal attributes determined to direct the work to get better and improved process in a specific, quantifiable technique either in follow-on service or product attributes (e.g., quality, performance of product, standards conformance) in which the process is implemented. (Go through “organization’s business objectives” and “quantitative objective” also)
Process Improvement Plan
A plan prepared for accomplishing process improvement objectives at organizational level on the basis of a deep insight of present strong points and weak points of the processes of organization and process assets.
Process Measurement
A suite of practices which are applied to establish quantitative values of measures in a process and its follow-on services or products for the goal of distinguishing and insight the process. (Go through “measurement” also)
Process Owner
An individual or team accountable for describing, depicting and maintaining a process
Process Performance
A results’ measure attained by tracking a process (Go through “measure” also) Performance of Process is described by both process measures (e.g. schedule, effort, cycle time, defect removal efficiency etc.) and service or product measures (e.g., reliability, defect density, response time etc.).
Process Performance Baseline
A recorded description of process performance in document, which comprise significant propensity and variance (Go through “process performance” also) A process performance baseline document is applied as a yardstick for judge against expected process performance to actual process performance.
Process Performance Model
A depiction of associations amongst the quantifiable characteristics of one or more procedures or work products which is created from previous data for process performance which is utilized to calculate performance in future. (Go through “measure” also)
Process Tailoring
Creating, changing, or modifying a procedure definition for a specific conclusion.
A work product which is designed for releasing to a client, customer or end user
Product Baseline
The preliminary permitted technical data package describing a configuration item in the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and logistic assistance of its life. (Go through “configuration item,” “configuration management,” and “technical data package” also) This expression is associated to configuration management.
Product Component
A work product is a small element at a lower level of the product. (Go through “product” and “work product” also) Product components are incorporated to create the product.
Product Component Requirements
An entire requirement of a service or product component, together with well, structure, task, performance, and several further requirement.
Product Lifecycle
The time span, comprising of segments which commence when a service or product is visualized and finishes when service or the product is no more present for function.
Product Line
A set of products having a shared, administered suite of characteristics which fulfill specific requirements of a assignment or chosen market and which are created from a usual group of principal assets in a recommended technique. (Go through “service line” also) For the product line the products’ development or acquisition is on the basis of using shared aims and bordering variance (confining unimportant variation of product) in the assemblage of products. The administered suite of principal assets (requirements, architectural details, product components, tools, testing artifacts, operating processes, software code) comprises direction for their application in the development of product.
Product Related Lifecycle Processes
Procedures related to a service or product all the way through one or more phases of the lifecycle (from Initiation through final), as in support and manufacturing processes.
Product Requirements
A fine-tuning of requirements of customer into the developers’ words, making understood requirements into unambiguous derivative requirements. (Go through “derived requirements” and “product component requirements” also) The coder applies product requirements to direct the blueprint of the service or product.
An administered suite of interconnected resources and practices, counting people, which release one or more services or products to a client, customer or end user; a project is having a designed start and final point. Usually projects function in accordance with a plan. This type of plan is often recorded in document and states the things to be released or executed, the finances and assets to be applied, the assignment, and a timeline for the work done. Many projects can be comprised in a single project. (Go through “project startup” also.)
Project Plan
A plan on the basis of which activities in the project are performed and controlled, which takes care of the project customer’s commitments
Project progress and performance
Project progress and performance is achieved regarding executing project plans, together with cost, effort, schedule, and performance. (Go through “technical performance” also)
Project Closure
The ultimate phase in the project development life cycle projected to formalize the approval and methodical end of the project. Project closure consist two procedures administrative closure and contract closure
Project Startup
When a suite of interconnected assets for a project are guided to create and release one or more services or products to a client, customer or end user. (Go through “project” also)
A beginning kind, variety, or instance of a service, product, product component, or service component which operates as a model for afterward phases or for the final stage of the service or product
The extent up to which a group of intrinsic attributes comply with the requirements
Quality and process performance objectives
Quantifiable Measurement objectives and requirements for quality of product, quality of service, and performance of process
Quality Assurance
A designed and organized procedure for making certain management that the outlined standard principles, activities, processes, and techniques of the process are implemented
Quality Attribute
A characteristic of a service or product through which the quality of the service or product forms an opinion by relevant stakeholders; Quality attributes are distinguishable through various suitable measures Attributes of Quality are non-useful, as timelines, output, receptiveness, security, changeability, consistency, and usability. They have a considerable impact on the structure.
Quality Control
The functional methods and practices which are utilized to comply with quality requirements (Go through “quality assurance” also)
Quantitative Management
Organizing a work group or project in which statistical and further quantitative techniques are made in use to develop a thought of the performance or calculated processes’ performance weigh against goals of the quality and performance of process, and recognizing corrective action which are taken to correct the defect. (Go through “statistical techniques” also)
Quality Management System
A suite of synchronized activities to guide and monitor a corporation so as to recurrently get better effectiveness and competence of its performance. It contains organizational structure, processes and resources required to put into practice quality management.
Quantitative Objective
Required aim value stated through quantitative measures. (Go through “measure,” “process improvement objectives,” and “quality and process performance objectives” also)
Reference Model
A model which is utilized in practice as a yardstick to measure a characteristic
Regression Analysis
It is a modeling technique weigh against the association between variables. It is usually applied for forecasting, prediction and analyzing the process.
The arrangement, usage, and staging of components of CMMI. There are two types of methods to state best practices are

  • Staged representation
  • Continuous representation
Required CMMI Components
Components of CMMI which are necessary to attain improvement in procedure associated with provided process area. Specific goals and generic goals are the required components of model. Objective fulfillment is made in use for appraisals as the foundation to make a decision whether a process area is fulfilled or not.
A state or capacity required by the customer to resolve a trouble and attain a purpose. In other words a state or capacity which be obliged to acquire by a product, service, product component, or service component to fulfill a supplier agreement, standard, specification, or further formally compulsory documents. (Go through “supplier agreement” also)
Requirements Elicitation
Applying organized methods like prototypes and designed surveys to practically recognize and customer and end-user requirements are documented.
Requirements Management
The administration of all the requirements from customer are acknowledged by the project or work group, together with technical as well as non-technical requirements and as those requirements charged on the project or work group by the corporation. (Go through “nontechnical requirements” also)
Requirements Traceability
A traceable relationship connecting requirements and associated requirements, i executions, and validations (Go through “bidirectional traceability” and “traceability” also)
Requirements Traceability Matrix
A table represents reasonable associations among specific functional requirement including other requirements, design elements, code, test cases, and business norms.
Return On Investment
The relative amount of revenue from productivity (service or product) to costs of production, which conclude whether an association advantages from executing an action to generate something
Capability of an element which permits it to be made use of repetitively not like a disposable element.
A formal evaluation or examination of process or work product with the likelihood of introducing change if required
Review Efficiency
The Review Efficiency is a measure which provides understanding of the testing and review quality. Sometimes it is also termed as “Static Testing” efficiency. Review efficiency and defect density are inversely proportional.
Correction of faulty and non-conformance item, all through or after review, Rework comprises all follow-on exertions for example repair, replacement, dis-assembly, reassembly, etc.
Rework Efficiency
Rework efficiency = No. of defect / defect fixing exertion
Ripple effect
The process where a small change in one piece of a software system influences directly or indirectly as a minimum one other area of the software system
Risk Analysis
The assessment, categorization, and superiority of risks
Risk Identification
An ordered, systematic method utilized to try to find possible or practical risks in attaining goals.
Risk Management
A systematic, analytic process is utilized to know the reason for the risk; to evaluate and enumerate the recognized risks; and to create or if required, execute a suitable method to obstruct or control roots of risk which can effect in considerable destruction or shortfall. Normally, risk management is executed for the practices of a project, a work group, an organization, or further organizational sections which are building or releasing services or products.
Root Cause
A starting cause followed by chain of causes following to an effect of attention. Usually, root cause is applied to explain the intensity of cause where interference could practically be put into practice to modify performance and prevent an objectionable result.
A plan for implementing a process, containing lists of intended events with times and resource name with task allocation.
Schedule Variance
Any divergence from the plan which is previously baselined of a project, calculated by weighing against planned cost of work scheduled with actual cost of work carried out.
Senior Manager
A role in management in an organization at a higher level so that the main center of focus of that person is satisfying the role is the durable strength of the organization more willingly than temporary apprehensions and stresses. (Go through “higher level management” also) A senior manager possesses a power to guide the allotment or re-allotment of assets in reinforcement of organizational procedure improvement efficiency.
An outcome which is insubstantial can’t be touched and stored. (Go through “product,” “customer,” and “work product” also). Services are released by making use of service systems which are intended to comply with requirements of service. (Go through “service system” also)
Service Agreement
A compulsory, on paper record of an assured trade and exchange of value involving a service supplier and a client or customer (Go through “customer” also).
Service Catalog
A directory of consistent and standardized definitions of services; Service catalogs can comprise changeable extent of description concerning levels of service existing, quality, costs, customizable/ modifiable items, and provisions. A service catalog is not required to hold information in only one artifact or some other document, and it can also be an amalgamation of document or artifacts which gives equal facts and data.
Service Incident
A signal of a real and possible obstruction or interference through a service; Service incidents takes place in service domain of any type due to end-user and customer grievances and complaints are different forms of incidents and complaints are produced through even the minimalist of services.
Service Level
A described amount, extent, or service delivery performance excellence. (Go through “service” and “service level measure” also)
Service Level Agreement
A service agreement which explains the services which are to be delivered in the project lifecycle, procedures of service, degree of acceptability and responsibilities which are expected, accountabilities, and deeds of the service provider as well as customer in expected circumstances. (Go through “measure,” “service,” and “service agreement” also) A service level agreement is a type of agreement for service which records the descriptions signified in the meaning.
Service Level Measure
A degree of quantifying the performance of service delivery related to a level of service. (Go through “measure” and “service level” also)
Service Line
A combined and consistent suite of service levels and services which comply with the specific requirements of a chosen area (Go through “product line” and “service level” also)
Service Request
An interaction between an end user and customer in which some particular requests of service delivery are required (Go through “service agreement” also) These requests are done in the scope of a service agreement. For example where services are to be constantly and regularly delivered, a few requests for services are clearly acknowledged in the service agreement. In remaining instances, requests for service which occur in the area of a formerly determined service agreement are produced eventually by end users or customers as their requirements grow.
Service Requirements
The comprehensive suite of necessities which impact the delivery of service and service system development (Go through “service system” also) Service requirements comprise all requirements. Technical needs are possessions of the service which are to be delivered and the service system is required to facilitate service delivery. Nontechnical needs comprise supplementary situations, requirements, commitments, and terms recognized through agreements, and system, over and above required competence and situational derivative from objectives of business.
Service System
An incorporated and mutually dependent amalgamation of resources of component which complies with requirements of service (Go through “service system component” and “service requirements” also) A service system take in the whole thing needed for delivery of service, together with work products, procedures, amenities, tools, human resources and consumables. A service system comprises the individuals important to execute the processes of service system. In some circumstances where end users execute a few procedures for delivery of service to be achieved, those end users also belong to service system.
Service System Component
A resource needed for a service system to effectively execute services delivery. A few elements are stayed in possession of a customer, end user, or third party previous to delivery of service starts and subsequent to end of service delivery. (Go through “customer”? and “end user” also) A number of components of the service system are temporary resources for a small time. Components comprise procedures and people. The term “component”? can be used instead of “service system component” for shortness after the situation clears the significance. The term “infrastructure”?is applied to convey cooperatively to components of service system which is touchable and fundamentally lasting. On the basis of situation and service type, infrastructure comprises human resources also.
Service System Consumable
A component of service system which finishes to accessible everlastingly altered through the use in the release of a service.
Shared Vision
An ordinary insight of guiding principles which comprise assignment, goals, anticipated performance, standards, and results; these are created and utilized in a project or work group.
Software Engineering
The implementation of an organized, restricted, measurable method for the software development, process, and maintenance
Software Requirements Specification
A software requirements specification (SRS) is a complete explanation of the projected objective and environment for software in development. The SRS completely explains what will be performed by the software and how it will perform.
The method of creating a suite which brings into play at the time of supplier selection (Go through “solicitation package” also)
Solicitation Package
A compilation of prescribed formal records which comprises a explanation of the required kind of reply from a capable supplier, the applicable statement of work for the supplier, and needed supplies in the supplier agreement.
Special Cause of Variation
A reason of a defect or bug which is particular to a few temporary situations and it is not an inbuilt function of a process. (Go through “common cause of variation” also)
Specific Goal
A required component of model which explains the exceptional attributes which have to be available to comply with the requirements of a process area. (Go through “capability level,” “generic goal,” “organization’s business objectives,” and “process area” also)
Specific Practice
An expected component of model which is believed vital in accomplishing the related specific goal (Go through “process area” and “specific goal” also) The specific practices explain the practices anticipated to effect in accomplishment of the specific goals of a process area.
Stable Process
The condition in which particular reasons of process variance are eliminated and prevented from returning with the intention that merely ordinary reasons of process variance of the process continue (Go through “capable process,” “common cause of variation,” “special cause of variation,” and “standard process” also)
Staged Representation
A structure of model in which achieving the objectives of a suite of process areas determines a particular maturity level and every level creates a base for succeeding levels (Go through “maturity level” and “process area” also)
A team or individual who is impacted by or is in any manner and also responsible for the result of an activity (Go through “customer” and “relevant stakeholder” also) Stakeholders comprise project or work group team members, providers, clients, end users, etc. This word is having a specific sense in the CMMI Product Suite in addition to its common meaning in English.
Standard (Noun)
Development of Requirements is done and applied to recommend constant methods for acquisition, development, or service. Some examples of standards are ISO/IEC standards, IEEE standards, and standards at organizational level.
Standard Process
A functional description of the fundamental process which directs the determining of a familiar process in an organization A standard process explains the basic process components which are anticipated to be included into any process. It also explains associations among the process components. (Go through “defined process” also)
Statement of Work
An explanation of work which is to be executed
Statistical and Other Quantitative Techniques
Analytic and diagnostic techniques which make possible achieving a practice through measuring parameters or quantifying constraint of the task (Example: size, effort, and performance). (Go through “statistical techniques” and “quantitative management” also)
Statistical Process Control
Statistics based evaluation of a procedure and events of process performance, which recognize ordinary and exceptional reasons of variance in process performance and uphold performance of process within confines. (Go through “common cause of variation,” “special cause of variation,” and “statistical techniques” also).
Statistical Techniques
Mathematical statistics using activities are customized for techniques such as distinguishing performance of process, identifying with variation in process, and estimating results. Instances of statistical techniques comprise analysis of variance, scatter diagram, process control charts etc.
An informative component of model which gives direction for understanding and executing generic or specific practices; Sub practices can be termed as dogmatic, but these are in fact designed merely to give thoughts which can be helpful for improvement in process.
A small process which is a part of a process that is part of a superior process (Go through process,” “process description,” and “process element” also) A sub process can or cannot be further splitted into smaller sub processes or process components. The words “process”, ? “subprocess”, and “process element”? create a hierarchy containing “process”? at the top most, “subprocesses”? under it, and “process element”? at the lowest level. A subprocess also named as a process element if it is not splitted into sub-processes.
A specific person, corporation, alliance, or some other body possessing a formal documented agreement with an acquirer for different functions like design, development, production, maintenance, alteration, or make available items according to conditions in the agreement. (Go through “acquirer” also)
Supplier Agreement
On paper agreement between the acquirer and supplier (Go through “supplier” also) Supplier agreements are also named as contracts, licenses, and memorandum of agreement.
The procedures utilized to make sure that a service or product continues operational.
System of Systems
A suite of systems which consequences when self-governing and helpful systems are incorporated into a huge system which releases exclusive competences.
Systems Engineering
The corrective method ruling the whole technological and administrative effort needed to alter a suite of customer requirements, anticipations, and restraints in a resolution and to assist that resolution all through its life. (Go through “hardware engineering” and “software engineering” also) This method comprises the description of technical performance measures, the incorporation of engineering areas of expertise in the direction of the organization of a structural design, and the description of encouragement in lifecycle procedures which balances the cost, schedule, and goals of performance.
The practice of creating, changing, or adapting a process for a specific output For instance, a project or work group determines its described procedure by tailoring from the standard processes of organization to comply with its goals, limitations, and atmosphere. Similarly, a service provider tailors standard services because of a specific service agreement.
Tailoring Guidelines
Organizational guidelines which facilitate projects, work groups, and organizational operations to correctly adjust standard processes for the use of a specific project
Target Profile
A directory of process areas and their consequent capability levels which depict a goal for improvement of process (Go through “achievement profile” and “capability level profile” also) Target profiles are just accessible at the time of applying the continuous representation.
Target Staging
A succession of target profiles explaining the direction of process improvement which is to be tracked by the organization (Go through “achievement profile,” “capability level profile,” and “target profile” also). Target staging are just accessible at the time of applying the continuous representation.
A collection of individuals with balancing proficiency and knowledge which effort jointly to achieve particular goals; A team determines and continues a procedure which recognizes reliability, accountabilities, and interfaces; is adequately briefs to facilitate the team to calculate, administer, and get better their performance in task; and facilitates the team to create and protect their assurance. Cooperatively, members of the team give proficiency and support suitable to all characteristics of the assignment and are accountable for achieving the particular goals.
Technical Data Package
A group of items which can comprise the subsequent if such facts and data is suitable to the kind of product and product component

  • Depiction of Product architecture
  • Requirements allotment
  • Depiction of Product component
  • Product associated lifecycle procedure explanations
  • Characteristics of Key product
  • Physical characteristics and constraints requirement
  • Requirements Interface
  • Requirements resources
  • Construction and development of requirements
  • Verification decisive factors utilized to make sure requirements have been accomplished
  • Circumstances of use and working circumstances, approaches and conditions for procedures, help, training, industrializing, removal, and confirmations all through the product life.
  • Principle for judgments and attributes
Technical Performance Measure
Specifically described and confined technical degree of measure for a requirement, competence, or a few amalgamations of requirements and competence. (Go through “measure” also)
Technical Requirements
Attributes of services or products which are to be created or acquired.
The template refers to a sample document “fill-in-the-blank” which is completed either by hand or by an iterative process.
A traceable relationship in two or more rational units such as requirements, elements of system, authentications, or assignments (Go through “bidirectional traceability” and “requirements traceability” also)
Trade Study
An assessment of substitutes, on the basis of decisive factors and methodical analysis, to choose the best substitute for achieving previously established goals.
Learning opportunities which can be either formal or informal These learning opportunities comprise classroom training, informal guiding, web-based training, directed self study, and official on-the-job training activities. The learning opportunities chosen for each condition are on the basis of an evaluation of the requirement for training and variance to be referred.
Unit Testing
Testing of particular hardware and software units or collection of associated entities (Go through “acceptance testing” also)
User Interface
Visual section of software application through which a user communicates with the system. It concludes that in “what way commands are given to the system and how information is shown on the screen”. Three main types of user interfaces are

  • Command language
  • Menus
  • Graphical user interface (GUI)
Authentication of the service or product, as given, to fulfill its desired use; It can also be said as validation makes sure that- you created the correct thing. (Go through “verification” also)
Authentication of the work products correctly indicates the specific requirements. It can also be said as, verification makes sure that ?you created it through a right method. (Go through “validation” also.)
Version Control
The creation and preservation of baselines of CIs and the finding alterations to the baselines of CIs which turn out it achievable to revert to the prior baseline In some areas, a particular work product can have its baseline and a degree of control below formal configuration control possibly enough.
Walk through
Gradually review and test of all characteristics of the environment, plan, or procedure to verify that the product ready for its planned function.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
An organization of work units and their association among them and to the final product or service
Work Group
An organized group of individuals and other allocated resources which releases one or more services or products to an end user or customer (Go through “project” also) A work group may be any organizational unit having a particular aim, even when that unit not comes into view in an organization chart. Work groups can emerge at any level of an organization, can enclose further work groups, and can cross organizational limits. A work group at the same time with its work is believed the identical as a project if it is having a calculatedly restricted life span.
Work Plan
A record of planning of practices and associated distributions of resource for a work group; Planning of Work comprises guesstimating the characteristics of work products and assignments, clarifying the required resources, discussing on commitments, creating a timeline, and recognizing and examining risks.
Work Product
A helpful output of a procedure; This output comprise files, documents, products, parts of a product, services, process descriptions, specifications, and invoices. A main difference between a work product and a product component is that a work product is not always a constituent of final product. (Go through “product”? and “product component” also)
Work Product and Task Attributes
Attributes of products, services, and assignments applied to facilitate in approximating work. These attributes comprise items like size, complexity, weight, type, and task. It is usually carried on as one input to obtain other estimates of resource. (Example: Cost, effort, timeline etc.)
Work Startup
While a group of resources which are interconnected in a work group is guided to create or release one or more services or products for a client or end user. (Go through “work group” also)

Note: Reference – CMMI for Development Model Version 1.3